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BELLEVUE 

A SHORT HISTORY OF BELLEVUE 

HOSPITAL AND OF THE 

TRAINING SCHOOLS 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

ALUMNAE ASSOCIATION OF BELLEVUE 

PENSION FUND COMMITTEE 

DECEMBER, 1915 



TOD UflRARY 



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Copyright, 1915 

Alumnae Association of Bellevue 

New York City 



American Lithographic Co., N. Y. 



SDefcicatet) 

to the Memory of 

MRS. WILLIAM PRESTON GRIFFIN 

and 

MRS. WILLIAM HENRY OSRORN 

In grateful appreciation of their work 

in establishing our Training School. 



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New Bellevue. 





AN ODE TO BELLEVUE. 

By 
MARY ST. JOHN, R. N. 



If your walls could but tell the story, 

Of the deeds of those mighty men, 
That have traver'st the boards of Rellevue's wards, 

T'would a wonderful story pen. 

It would tell of their work and the efforts 
That were made for the human race; 

And of each plan that they made to save man, 
By striving disease to efface. 

Then again it would tell you of others — 

Of that band of women who came, 
And who saw indeed the people's great need, 

For through them sprang Bellevue's fame. 

How they spent both their time and their money, 

And made a most glorious fight 
Until there now stands a monument grand — 

A symbol of wisdom and light. 

Then again they would speak of the nurses, 

Who never once seemed to tire. 
But would work with their might both day and night 

To benefit man, their desire. 

For this body of earnest, hard workers, 
With their heart and soul, and their brain, 

Were the part of God's plan found in the van 
Of the army, that's lived not in vain. 

They would tell how your doors have been opened 

To the sick, the sore and the sad, 
How the poor and forsaken you've always taken, 

And given the best that you've had. 

How you've never rebuked nor condemned them 

Because they success did not win, 
But have unbarred your gate no matter how late, 

And always have welcomed them in. 

That these walls so soon shall be silenced, 

Whose stories must then pass away, 
Means a sorrow, this coming to-morrow, 

For the ones who know them to-day. 

And when in the dust you have been leveled, 

Your requiem song has been sung; 
In Memory's hall will be found on the wall, 

A tablet to Bellevue there hung. 



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1816 

The oldest picture of Bellevue. It is from an engraving, taken from a design on an old Stafford- 
shire platter. The engraving is in the Public Library of New York City. 




Bellevue Hospital 





Where the City Hall now stands was erected, in 1736, the 
building known as the "Publick Workhouse and House of Cor- 
rection of the City of New York." 

Here, in a room twenty-five by twenty-three feet, on the 
upper floor of the building, we find the first trace of Bellevue 
Hospital. 

Dr. John Van Buren was the first medical officer, with a salary 
of £100 a year, out of which he supplied his own medicines. 

This house was occupied until 1796, when a new one was 
built, directly in the rear of the old building, on what is now the 
north side of Chambers Street. 

In 1794 the State Government represented to- the City Govern- 
ment the necessity of providing some place of isolation for per- 
sons afflicted with yellow fever. The most eligible place that 
presented itself was a plot, about five acres in extent, which had 
once been a part of Kips Bay Farm, and called by its owner 
Belle Vue. 



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1848. 



BELLEVUE 

Thus the history of the first hospital to bear the name Belle 
Vue is to all intents and purposes the history of the epidemics 
which ravaged the city for eleven years. 

Then for five years we do not hear of the place, when it 
appears on the records as the southern boundary of the plot on 
which, in 1811, was laid the cornerstone of the new almshouse 
and hospital, the formal opening of which took place on April 
28, 1816. 

In 1825 a fever hospital was erected, the first and second 
stories containing cells where the pauper insane were kept. In 
this year, also, the reign of the resident physician was begun. 
Dr. Isaac Wood filled the position for seven years, during which 
he placed the struggling hospital on its feet, and from that time 
on it has been known as the Bellevue Hospital. But twenty-two 
years were yet to elapse before it should take possession of the 
building which it occupies to-day. In 1848 the almshouse, with 
all that pertained to it, was removed to Blackwells Island, and 
the hospital was transferred to the building vacated by the 
paupers. 

In April, 1855, a wing was added extending along the 28th 
Street side eastward, and the following year saw the addition of 
a fourth story to the main building, and a large amphitheatre, so 
that the main building was then in its external appearance the 
same as it is to-day. 



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The first ambulance service in the world was established by 
Bellevue in 1869. 

In 1879 a building, called Sturges Pavilion, was erected by 
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Osborn. 

The Marquand Pavilion was given in 1883. 

An Alcoholic Pavilion was built by the city in 1892. 

The first unit of the New Bellevue, begun in 1906, and con- 
taining the Medical Pavilion A and B, was opened in the fall of 
1908. 

The Pathological Building and men's dormitory were finished 
in 1911. The new laundry and the store-room were opened in 



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September, 1912, while to the south stands the latest addition, 
Pavilion I and K, and to the east, facing the river, Pavilion L 
and M. 

These two pavilions contain operating rooms, the X-Ray 
department, the surgical supply rooms, and 700 beds for surgical 
patients. 

On the ground floor of Pavilion I is an amphitheatre seating 
300 and used for classes, clinics and demonstrations. 

That the work done in Bellevue in recent years has been 
proportionate to the growth of the plant, is proved by the follow- 
ing statistics: 




1879. 



BELLEVUE 

In 1902 the hospital contained 900 beds, which had been 
increased to 1,334 in 1913. Officers, Visiting Physicians and 
Surgeons, House Staff and other employees numbered 556 in 
1902, and 1,108 in 1913. 23,780 patients were treated in 1902 as 
compared with 41,428 in 1913. 

In Bellevue the first School for Midwives in this country was 
founded in 1911, and the first systematic Hospital Social Service 
organized in 1906. 

On another page may be seen the completed Bellevue of the 
future, and while we regret the passing of the old, we cannot 
fail to rejoice in the hope and promise of the Bellevue which 
is to be. 



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Front of the Hospital, 
1915. 



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Main Entrance. 

This railing formed part of the balcony of Federal Hall over 
which General Washington delivered his first inaugural ad- 
dress, April 30, 1789. 



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Fountain on the grounds of Bellevue Hospital. 



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1892. 

Sturges Pavilion, now Ward 40. 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. William Henry Osborn. 



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1893 

Marquand Pavilion, now Ward 32 

The Marquand Pavilion was the gift of Messrs. F. and H. Marquand, in memory of 

their brother, Josiah Penfield Marquand. 



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Ward B 5. Christmas Time. 



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Baby Room of the Maternity Ward. 



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Episcopal Chapel, Christ the Consoler, 
was given by Mrs. R. H. L. Townsend. 
It was dedicated April 22, 1889, by the 
Rev. Henry Satterlee, rector of Cal- 
varv Church. 



"After the service Mrs. Townsend, 
assisted by friends, planted eigrht 
ivy plants. Each was expected to 
be his or her vine, and in per- 
forming: this duty they were not 
to forgret the privileg-e of looking- 
inside and helping- on the growth 
of the work so happily begrun." 



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Altar of the Roman Catholic Chapel, 

Given by Miss Annie Leary in memory 

of her brother. 



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Old Ambulance. 



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New Ambulance. 



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Barnum & Bailey giving a complimentary exhibition for 
the patients of Bellevue. 



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Ward in the new surgical wing, opened November, 1915. 



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Calorimeter. 



Human Heat 





A machine for determining exactly how much food any per- 
son needs in order to keep his weight stationary, is now in opera- 
tion at Bellevue Hospital, in New York City. At present it is 
applied only to persons who are ill, especially typhoid fever 
patients; but its further application to the struggles of healthy 
people against growing fat, is probable. With the facts obtained 
from this machine, doctors can provide a diet for patients in the 
hospital that will keep up their strength all through an illness, 
avoiding the two dangers of overworking the organs by supply- 
ing too much food or of weakening the organs by not providing 
sufficient nourishment. 

The old treatment of typhoid was to supply food very spar- 
ingly to the patient, leaving him weak and emaciated at the end 
of the fever. Fatal results were feared if the patient was given 
much nourishment. The most modern theory, however, is that, 
with extreme care and expert knowledge in the selection and 
administration of food, it is safe to provide enough nourishment 
to keep up the patient's weight and strength. Scientific knowl- 



BELLEVUE 

edge of foods, combined with understanding of the bodily re- 
quirements, is essential. The new machine gives a full and exact 
report of the bodily requirements instead of the rough estimates 
that have prevailed. It is called respiration calorimeter, and its 
duty is to report how much heat is manufactured by the body of 
a patient. Food is turned into heat by the body, and it is already 
known exactly how much heat will be manufactured by the body 
out of an ounce of any common article of food. 

Thus, if the doctor finds out how much heat is being manu- 
factured by the body of a typhoid fever patient, he can easily 
figure out how much food — to the fraction of an ounce — must 
be supplied to keep up that heat production without drawing on 
the reserve forces of the patient and causing a gradual weaken- 
ing. The digestive organs may be expected to handle the proper 
amount of food readity — provided, of course, the right kind of 
food is selected as well as the right quantity. Any extra food 
would overtax the digestive organs. 

The respiration calorimeter consists of a big box, in which 
the patient is placed for two or three hours, with a set of instru- 
ments that will record every vestige of heat produced inside the 
box. Arrangements are made to keep it at an even and comfort- 
able temperature and to supply good ventilation. The record 
will show a heat production at the rate of a certain number of 
calories a day, weight and size making much difference between 
normal individuals. 



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Old Training School. 




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Training School 




On January 26, 1872, a number of ladies met at the home of 
Miss Louisa Lee Schuyler to organize a committee to visit the 
public hospitals of the City and County of New York, and report 
upon their condition to the State Board of Charities. 

For many months sixty of the most intelligent women to be 
found in the city daily passed hours in the wards of Bellevue, 
carefully considering its conditions and consulting the highest 
hospital authorities. 

As a result of their report it was decided that no permanent 
reform could be effected under the actual system of nursing 
then existing. 

The women then employed were brought from Blackwell's 
Island, where they had been sent as vagrants, or paupers, or 
prisoners, and many could neither read or write. 

Later in the year a sub-committee was organized to propose 
a plan for a training school for nurses. 



BELLEVUE 

Mr. William H. Osborn was chairman of this committee, and 
Mrs. William Preston Griffin was one of its members. 

The first step^to be taken was to learn what a training school 
was, and as it was considered important that the information 
should be obtained at headquarters, Dr. W. Gill Wylie, then a 
house surgeon at Bellevue, offered to go to Europe at his own 
expense and bring back a report. 

Dr. Wylie was one of the first men in his profession to assist 
in this work, while many, who realized that a reform in hospital 
service was necessary, argued that a pauper hospital was no 
place for a refined and intelligent woman. 

One distinguished surgeon said, "I do not believe in the suc- 
cess of a training school for nurses at Bellevue Hospital. The 
patients, as a general thing, are such a difficult class to deal with, 
and the service is so hard that the conscientious, intelligent 
woman you are looking for will lose heart and hope long before 
the two years are over." 

Four members of the Medical Board to whom the committee 
owed a debt of gratitude were Dr. James R. Wood, Dr. Austin 
Flint, Dr. Stephen Smith, and Dr. James M. Markoe. 

Dr. Wylie returned from Europe in the autumn of 1872, 
bringing an interesting report of the Schools in England, France 



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and Germany, and, above all, a letter of encouragement and 
advice from Florence Nightingale. 

From the information obtained by Dr. Wylie, and from other 
sources, a paper was prepared stating the object of the work pro- 
posed and appealing to the public of New York for funds to 




New Training School. 



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Library of the Training School. 

establish the School. The project was received with enthusiasm, 
and in six weeks $22,385.00 were contributed. 

From the Commissioners of the Board of Charities a reluct- 
ant consent was obtained to nurse five wards at Bellevue, the 
committee defraying all expense beyond what was paid under 
the old system. In March, 1873, a house was hired in the vicinity 
of the hospital, as a home for the nurses, and a circular was 
issued inviting pupils to apply. At the end of several weeks six 
pupils were obtained, and Sister Helen, of The All Saints Sister- 
hood in London, became Superintendent. At the end of the first 
year the house staff ventured to point out to their superiors the 



B E L L E V U E 

improved condition of the nursing service, and gradually these 
gentlemen became convinced that their patients recovered sooner 
and that the deaths after operations were less freqeunt than 
formerly. 

During the second year the work was extended to other 
wards, the applications from would-be pupils increased, and at 
the close of the second year the first class graduated. 

In May, 1876, Sister Helen returned to England, and Miss 
Eliza Perkins, of Norwich, Connecticut, was placed in charge. 

Of Miss Perkins it has been said, "She studied the character 
and abilities of her pupils, knew the position each woman was 
adapted to fill, and, as class after class graduated, she sent them 
far and wide over the country to carry the results of their educa- 
tion into hospitals and homes." 

In 1888 Miss Perkins resigned and her place was filled by her 
assistant, Miss Agnes S. Brennan, under whose admirable fidelity 
and trained intelligence the School continued to develop. Dur- 
ing Miss Brennan's term of office Miss Carrie J. Brink was 
appointed Assistant Superintendent, and since that time has been 
closely associated with the work of the School. Miss Brink is at 
present Superintendent of Nurses. 

Miss Brennan, after fourteen years' continuous service as 
Superintendent, resigned in May, 1902, and Miss Jane A. Delano 



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B EL L E V U E 

succeeded her. Four years later Miss Delano, for personal 
reasons, presented her resignation, which was accepted most 
reluctantly by tjie Trustees of the Hospital and the Managers of 
the School. In Feburary, 1907, Miss Annie Goodrich, a graduate 
of the New York Hospital, and a woman of large experience in 
executive work was chosen General Superintendent of Training 
Schools, the nursing in Fordham and Harlem Hospitals, in addi- 
tion to the Bellevue service, being under her supervision. 

In 1910 Miss Goodrich was appointed State Inspector of 
Training Schools, and Miss Clara D. Noyes was called from St. 
Luke's, New Bedford, to succeed her. Miss Noyes is a Johns 
Hopkins graduate, and having had part of her training under 
our Mrs. Robb, was welcomed as a member of the Bellevue 
family, and for five years has labored unceasingly for the welfare 
of our School. 

At present the staff of workers consists of 133 graduate 
nurses, 111 student nurses, and 37 affiliating nurses. 



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Demonstration Room at Training School. 



BELLEVUE 

On Christmas Day, 1887, Mr. D. 0. Mills presented to the 
Department of Public Charities and Correction a sum of money 
to erect and establish a school for the training of male nurses. 

The Commissioners set aside a plot in the southeast corner 
of the Bellevue grounds, and by December, 1888, the building 
was completed. Five male wards were assigned to the care of 
these pupils, and until the first class was graduated, one of the 
women nurses had charge of each ward. 

Men of character and ability engaged in this work, and the 
experiment was so successful that gradually the entire male side 
of the hospital was under their care. The last class graduated in 
1911, and altogether 438 men held diplomas entitling them to 
practice nursing under the rules of the State Board of Regents. 
A considerable number chose this training as preliminary to the 
study of medicine, and are now physicians. 

The majority, however, are members of their Alumni Asso- 
ciation, which is located in New York and supplies the constant 
demand for male nurses. 

A School for Male Attendants has now completed its third 
year, and these young men have become a valuable supplement 
to the nursing staff. 

A number of the graduates are employed at Bellevue, several 
have entered a Training School to qualify as nurses, and others 
are employed in private work. 



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Osborn Hail. 




Osborn Hall 





In 1878 a house located at 426 East 26th Street was pur- 
chased by Mrs. William Henry Osborn, and leased to the Board 
of Managers of the Bellevue Training School for Nurses. This 
was known as the Nurses' Home, and for more than thirty years 
continued to be a place of residence for the pupils of the School. 

On May 24, 1909, the new building provided by the city 
was occupied by the pupils, and the work of remodelling 426 was 
begun. An adjoining lot was purchased by Mr. and Mrs. William 
Church Osborn, and on this was erected a building six stories 
in height, perfect in every detail of finish and equipment, and, 
together with the original building, appropriately furnished as a 
club house for the graduate nurses. 

A restaurant seating nearly one hundred is patronized by the 
many workers in this vicinity, and guests of the house. 

The Assembly Room is well adapted for our meetings, con- 
certs — and a stage can be easily erected for the little plays and 
minstrel shows given each winter, 

A well equipped laundry is much appreciated by all. 



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Reception Room of Osborn Hall. 

The Registry is located here, and is thus made accessible to 
doctors visiting the hospital, as well as for the nurses. 

This completed structure designed by Mr. and Mrs. William 
Church Osborn as a memorial to Mrs. William Henry Osborn, 
was placed in charge of the Bellevue Alumnae Association in 
April, 1911. Two years later a wing was added, making the 
capacity 180 guests, consisting not only of nurses, but other 
self-supporting women. 

With one voice all can say that the wish to make Osborn Hall 
a home for the graduates has been more than realized. 



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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES (hsl.stx) 

RA982.N42B41 1915 C.I 

Bellevue : 



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